Published by the European Statistical Institute a true atlas of deaths in Europe for rates and gender (2017) and the causes (2016). Italy on average EU for the number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, but although not by large numbers holds the record for deaths from hepatitis, liver cancers and blood diseases. In the last places in Europe, on the other hand, among the "external causes" for aggression, poisoning, suicide and falls.

Cancer and circulatory diseases remain the leading causes of death in the EU, although mortality rates have fallen sharply in the last 10 years. Infant mortality is also falling, while in the last year (2017) life expectancy in European countries fell: estimated at 80.9 years in 2017 (0.1 years less than in 2016 83.5 years for women (0.1 fewer than in 2016) and 78.3 years for men (0.1 more than in 2016). On the other hand, the number of deaths is increasing. The numbers are those of Eurostat which offers a real atlas of mortality in Europe for individual causes (2016 data) and for rates and difference between sexes (2017 data).

Life expectancy at birth, according to the landscape offered, has increased rapidly over the last century due to a number of factors, including reducing infant mortality, rising living standards, improving lifestyles and better education, as well as advances in health and medicine.

But in 2017, mortality in the EU 28 increased slightly: around 5.3 million people died. The annual number of deaths is the highest observed in the last five decades. The death rate per 1,000 inhabitants was 10.3 in EU 28 in 2017.

The most commonly used indicator for analysing mortality is life expectancy at birth: in the EU 28 it was estimated at 80.9 years in 2017 (0.1 years less than in 201 83.5 years for women (0.1 fewer than in 2016) and 78.3 years for men (0.1 more than in 2016). For women, this was the second decline in life expectancy in the EU28 since 2002.

Overall, between 2002 (the first year for which life expectancy data for all EU Member States were available) and 2017, life expectancy in the EU 28 increased by 3.2 years, from 77.7 to 80.9 years; The increase was 2.6 years for women and 3.8 years for men.

Life expectancy fell in 11 Member States in 2017, compared to 2016, from a high of 0.6 years in Luxembourg (from 82.7 to 82.1 years) to a low of 0.1 in Bulgaria (from 74.9 to 74.8 years), Greece (81.5 to 81.4 years), Spain (83.5 to 83.4 years) and Austria (81.8 to 81.7 years).

In these countries, life expectancy for women fell by 1 year in Luxembourg, 0.2 years in Spain, 0.1 years in Bulgaria, Greece and Austria, while a reduction for men was observed only in Luxembourg (0.2 years) and Greece (0.1 years) from Bulgaria, Spain and Austria recorded an increase of 0.1 years.

The second largest reduction in life expectancy was observed in Cyprus, where it was estimated at 82.2 years (0.5 fewer than in 2016). In this country, life expectancy for women decreased by more (0.7 years) than life expectancy for men (0.3 years).
Eleven Member States showed an increase in life expectancy at birth, from 0.9 in Lithuania to 0.1 in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom, while 6 Member States were stable.
In the years between 2000 and 2017, the increase in life expectancy at birth for men in EU Member States ranged from a minimum of 2.9 years (in Greece) to a maximum of 8.2 years (in Estonia). For women, the increase ranged from 2.1 years (in Sweden) to 6.2 years (in Estonia).

There are still big differences between countries. In 2017, the differences between the highest and lowest life expecta vita between EU Member States were 11 years for men and 7.7 years for women. For men, the lowest life expectancy was recorded in Latvia (69.8 years) and the highest in Italy and Sweden (80.8 years). For women, the range has gone from a minimum of 78.4 years in Bulgaria to a maximum of 86.1 years in Spain.

In 2017, life expectancy for women is even higher than life expectancy for men. With a gender gap of 5.2 years of life in 2017, newly born women in the EU 28 should generally expect to survive men. In addition, this gap varied widely between EU Member States. In 2017, the largest gender difference was found in Latvia (9.9 years) and the smallest in the Netherlands (3.2 years).

In 2017, some 18,200 children died before reaching one year of age in the EU28; this equated to a infant mortality rate of 3.6 deaths per 1,000 live births.

One of the most significant changes that led to an increase in life expectancy at birth was the reduction in infant mortality rates. During the 10 years from 2007 to 2017, the infant mortality rate in the EU 28 fell from 4.4 deaths per 1,000 live births to 3.6 deaths per 1,000 live births; Extending the analysis to the last 20 years, the infant mortality rate has been almost halved (6.8 deaths per 1,000 in 1997). The most significant reductions in infant mortality were generally recorded in EU Member States, which tended to have higher levels of infant mortality in 2007 than the EU average.

In 2017, the highest infant mortality rates in the EU 28 were recorded in both Malta and Romania (6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births) and Bulgaria (6.4 deaths per 1,000 live births) and the lowest was recorded in Cyprus (1.3 deaths per 1,000 live births) and Finland (2.0 deaths per 1,000 live births). In 2017, infant mortality rates in EFTA countries ranged from a minimum of 0 deaths per 1,000 live births in Lichtenstein (this very low figure is influenced by the country's limited number of inhabitants) to a maximum of 3.5 deaths per 1,000 live births in Switzerland.

Causes of death
The latest estimated information for the EU 28 on causes of death is available for the 2016 reporting period. Diseases of the circulatory system and cancer (malignant malignancies) have been by far the leading causes of death in the EU.

Between 2006 and 2016, there was a 10.5% reduction in standard EU 28 cancer death rates for men and a 5.2% reduction for women. There were major reductions in relation to deaths from ischemic heart disease where mortality rates fell by 29.1% for men and 35.2% for women. There were even greater reductions in transport accident deaths where rates fell by 41.8% for men and 42.7% for women. The standardized mortality rate for breast cancer decreased by 8.0% for women, which was a larger drop than observed for all cancers. In contrast, mortality rates from nervous system diseases increased for men by 29.6 percent and for women by 33.1 percent. Although the standardised mortality rate for lung cancer (including trachea and bronchi cancer) increased for men and women, the rate of variation differed significantly. Diseases of the circulatory system include those related to high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes and smoking. The most common causes of death from circulatory system diseases are ischemic lecardiopathies and cerebrovascular diseases. In 2016, ischemic heart disease caused 119 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants across the EU 28. The EU Member States with the highest standardised mortality rates for ischemic heart disease were Lithuania, Latvia, Hungary and Slovakia, with a death toll of between 359 and 561 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2016. At the other end of the spectrum, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Italy, Greece and Slovenia had the lowest standardised mortality rates for ischemic heart disease, all of which were less than 100 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in 2016; This was also the case with Liechtenstein. Cancer was one of the leading causes of death, averaging 259 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in the EU-28 in 2016. The most common forms of cancer – all with standardized mortality rates of more than 10 per 100,000 inhabitants – included malignant cancers of: trachea, bronchi and lungs; colon, right-footed junction, rectum, and canal; Breast; pancreas; prostate; stomach; and liver and bile ducts. People in Hungary, Croatia, Slovakia and Slovenia were more likely to die of cancer, with 300 or more deaths per 100,000 inhabitants reported in 2016. In Poland, Latvia and Denmark and Serbia, mortality rates were very close to this level. Hungary recorded the highest standardised mortality rate for lung cancer among EU Member States in 2016 (90 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), followed by Poland (69 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), Denmark (67 per 100000 inhabitants), Croatia and the Netherlands (both 66 per 100000 inhabitants); Serbia also recorded a relatively high standardised mortality rate (71 per 100,000 inhabitants). The highest standardised mortality rate for colorectal cancer was also observed in Hungary, with 54 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. After circulatory diseases and cancer, respiratory diseases were the third most common cause of death in the EU 28, with an average of 83 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in 2016. Within this group of diseases, lower chronic respiratory diseases were the most common cause of mortality followed by other lower respiratory diseases and pneumonia. Respiratory diseases are age-related with the vast majority of deaths from these diseases recorded among people aged 65 and over. The highest standardised mortality rates for respiratory diseases among EU Member States were recorded in the United Kingdom (136 per 100,000 inhabitants), Ireland (134 per 100,000 inhabitants Portugal (123 per 100,000 inhabitants), Denmark (117 per 100,000 inhabitants) and Greece (109 per 100,000 inhabitants).

External causes of death include, among other things, deaths resulting from intentional self-harm (suicide) and transport accidents. Although suicide is not a leading cause of death and data from some EU Member States are likely to be underestimated, it is often considered an important indicator of social issues. On average, there were 10 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants as a result of suicide in the EU 28 in 2016. The lowest standardised death rates by suicide in 2016 were recorded in Cyprus and Greece (both 4 per 100,000 inhabitants) and relatively low rates – of less than 8 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants – were also recorded in Malta, Italy, the United Kingdom, Spain and Slovakia; Between EFTA and candidate countries, a particularly low rate was recorded in Turkey (3 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). The standardised death rate for suicide in Lithuania (28 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) was almost three times the EU 28 average. Although transport accidents occur daily, the frequency of deaths caused by transport accidents in EU 28 in 2016 (a standardised mortality rate of 5.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) was lower than the frequency of suicides. Romania, Latvia, Poland, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece recorded the highest standardised mortality rates (9.0 or more deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) from accidents in 2016, while at the other end of the spectrum, the UK, Sweden, Ireland and Denmark reported between 2.7 and 3.7 transport accident deaths per 100,000 inhabitants; Liechtenstein and Switzerland recorded similarly low rates between EFTA countries. With the exception of breast cancer, standardised mortality rates in the EU 28 were higher in 2016 than for men for all major causes of death in 2016. Standardized mortality rates for alcohol abuse and drug addiction were more than four times higher for men as for women, while mortality rates among men for intentional self-harm and HIV were three to four times higher than those of women.

While cancer deaths were generally higher for men than for women, there are a number of cancers that are prevalent only in one of the sexes, such as breast cancer in women, while some other cancers are exclusive to one of the sexes, such as uterine cancer for women or prostate cancer for men. Breast cancer accounted for 32.9 deaths per 100,000 females across the EU 28 in 2016. The highest standardised mortality rates were recorded for Croatia (40.4 per 100,000 female inhabitants), Ireland (40.3 per 100,000 female inhabitants), Hungary (39.4 per 100,000 inhabitants) and Slovakia (38.9 per 100,000 inhabitants). At the other end of the spectrum, there were fewer than 30.0 breast cancer deaths per 100,000 women in Spain, Sweden, Finland, Portugal, Lithuania, Cyprus and Estonia in 2016.

The highest standardised mortality rates for ischemic heart disease among men and women were recorded in Lithuania, Latvia, Hungary and Slovakia, while the lowest incidence of ischemic heart disease deaths among men and women was recorded in France and the Netherlands. The incidence of death from ischemic heart disease was systematically higher for men than for women in each of the EU Member States with the largest gender gaps – in absolute terms – recorded in the three Baltic Member States.

Similarly, standardized death rates by suicide were systematically higher for men than for women. The largest absolute gender gap in 2016 was in Lithuania, where the rate for men was 54.5 per 100,000 inhabitants compared to 7.8 per 100,000 inhabitants for women.

However, taking a simple ratio of rates for men and women found that in Poland, the rate for men was 7.6 times higher than for women. This gender ratio was lower in Luxembourg, Belgium, Sweden and the Netherlands, where standardised death rates for men were at most 3.0 times higher than for women.

For people under the age of 65, the main causes of mortality were somewhat different in terms of relative importance. Cancer was the leading cause of death within this age group – with an average of 76 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in the EU 28 in 2016 – followed by circulatory system diseases (44 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). Contrary to the data for the entire population, respiratory diseases are not among the three most common causes of mortality among people under the age of 65.

Mortality rates in the EU 28 for people under 65 fell between 2006 and 2016 for each of the leading causes of death except lung cancer (due to a sharp increase in 2009). The fall was particularly strong for transport accidents and ischemic heart disease, where the incidence of death decreased by 45.8% and 32.4% respectively during the period under review. In Italy, the number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants is circulatory disorders, followed by cancers and with some detachment from diseases of the respiratory system.

At the top of the list, between 2011 and 2016, ischemic heart disease (-8.36%) was the only decrease, while for other causes of death there were increases. The record number of absolute increases – not only among the first causes of death – is deaths from Parkinson's, which increased between 2011 and 2016 by 49.41%, while on the opposite side the largest reduction is that of DEATHS from HIV, reduced in the considered time period by -46.37 percent.

Italy is on average 28 EU (in 2016 1,004 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants compared to 1,006 in the EU 28) for causes of death (excluding those defined as "external" such as poisonings, falls, accidents, etc.). 'Italian' deaths weigh 11.99% of EU deaths, with Italy in second place after Germany (17.8%) and followed with a percentage weight of deaths compared to the total EU 28 more than 10% from the UK (11.72%) France (11.57%). Then for the causes of death Italy unfortunately has some primates. Like hepatitis deaths, which are only 4 per 100,000 inhabitants, put it first in the EU28, as well as the first place with 28 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for liver and intraepathic bile cancers and with 5 deaths per 100.00 inhabitants due to blood and blood-forming diseases and some disorders involving the immune mechanism.

In the high ranking of mortality from EU 28 causes, Italy is second for Hodgkin's disease and lymphomas and for non-malignant (benign and uncertain) cancers; third for endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases; fifth for mortality from malignant bladder cancer, other malignant malignancies of lymphoid, hemopoietic and related tissue, and Parkinson's; sixth for leukemia, other malignant malignancies (solid and hemoloxitic system tumors), diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. But it is the last place for mortality in EU 28 countries among the so-called "external causes" for aggression, poisoning, suicide and falls. In Italy, the number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants is circulatory disorders, followed by cancers and with some detachment from diseases of the respiratory system.

At the top of the list, between 2011 and 2016, ischemic heart disease (-8.36%) was the only decrease, while for other causes of death there were increases. The record number of absolute increases – not only among the first causes of death – is deaths from Parkinson's, which increased between 2011 and 2016 by 49.41%, while on the opposite side the largest reduction is that of DEATHS from HIV, reduced in the considered time period by -46.37 percent.

Source: quotidianosanita.it